Trichomonas buttreyi

Common Name: Small pig cecal trichomonad.

Disease: None.

Host: Pig.

Location: Cecum, colon, rarely small intestine.

Geographic Distribution: This species has been recognized so far only in North America, but presumably occurs thruout the world.

Prevalence: Hibler et al. (1960) found T. buttreyi in the ceca of 25. 4% of 496 pigs and in the small intestine of 1% of 100 pigs in Utah.

Morphology: This species was described in detail by Hibler et al. (1960) and by Buttrey (1956); the latter referred to it as a Paratrichomonas-like form resembling P. (or Trichomonas) batrachorum.

T. buttreyi is ovoid or ellipsoidal, 4 to 7 by 2 to 5 u with a mean of about 5.9 by 3.4 u. Cytoplasmic inclusions are frequently present, but Hibler et al. saw no cytostome. There are 4 or 3 anterior flagella which vary in length from a short stub to more than twice the length of the body and end in a knob or spatulate structure. The undulating membrane runs the full length of the body and has 3 to 5 undulations. The accessory filament is prominent and the costa relatively delicate. A posterior free flagellum is present. The axostyle is relatively narrow, with a spatulate capitulum, and protrudes 3 to 6 u beyond the body. There is no chromatic ring at its point of exit. A pelta is present anteriorly. The nucleus is frequently ovoid but varies considerably in shape; it measures 2 to 3 by 1 to 2 u and has a small endosome. The parabasal body is a disc 0.3 to 1.1 u in diameter.

Pathogenesis: Non-pathogenic.

Cultivation: According to Hibler et al., T. buttreyi grows readily on primary culture in standard trichomonad media, but dies out on subculture; they maintained it indefinitely in a cecal extract-serum medium provided Pseudomonas aeruginosa was present. Diamond (1957) however, established it in axenic culture.

Remarks: Doran (1958) studied the metabolism of this species, using Strain PC-287. It could not oxidize Krebs cycle intermediates, but produced carbon dioxide and other gas not absorbed by KOH anaerobically. It resembled T. suis more than other trichomonads, but differed in carbohydrate utilization and in having a generally lower respiratory rate.