Sarcocystis Miescheriana

Synonyms: Synchytrium miescherianum.

Host: Pig.

Location: Striated and heart muscles.

Geographic Distribution: Worldwide.

Prevalence: This species is extremely common thruout the world, having been reported in as high as 98.5% of pigs examined. Alicata (1932) found it in 75% of 180 garbage-fed hogs in California. Jacobs, Remington and Melton (1960a) found it in 44% of 50 pigs from a Baltimore slaughter house. Musfeldt (1950) found it in 6% of 264 swine diaphragms in British Columbia. Sysoev (1955) reported it in 9.2% of 319,492 swine diaphragms in the USSR.

Morphology: The cysts are 0.5 to 3 mm long and up to 3 mm wide. They are compartmented, and their wall is striated with cytophaneres.

Remarks: This is the type species of the genus. If it eventually turns out that the various species reported from different hosts are actually the same, then their correct name would be S. miescheriana.

Sarcocystis Fusiformis

Synonyms: Sarcocystis blanchardi, Miescheria cruzi.

Hosts: Ox, water buffalo.

Location: Striated and heart muscles.

Geographic Distribution: Worldwide.

Prevalence: This species is extremely common thruout the world. Wilson and McDonald (1938) found it in the hearts of 86% of 35 cattle in Virginia. Wang (1950) found it in 75% of 48 cattle in Illinois. Jacobs, Remington and Melton (1960a) found it in 98% of 60 cattle from a Baltimore slaughter house. Skibsted (1945) found it in 94% of 100 cows and 18.5% of 97 calves in Denmark.

Morphology: The cysts are up to 1 cm or more long. They are compartmented when mature. The cyst wall may be thin and smooth or may contain cytophaneres. The trophozoites are about 10 u long.

Sarcocystis Tenella

Synonym: Balbiania gigantea.

Hosts: Sheep, goat, bighorn sheep (Honess, 1956).

Location: Striated and heart muscles. This species is especially common in the wall of the esophagus.

Geographic Distribution: Worldwide.

Prevalence: This species is extremely common in sheep thruout the world, having been reported from 50 to 100% of the sheep examined (Scott, 1943; Destombes, 1957; Grasse, 1953). Jacobs, Remington and Melton (1960a) found it in 98% of 86 sheep from a Baltimore slaughter house. It is uncommon in goats (Reichenow, 1953).

Morphology: The cysts are relatively ellipsoidal and up to 1 cm long. The cyst wall is smooth at first, acquires a layer of cytophaneres as it grows, and loses them again as it ages. The cysts are compartmented. The trophozoites measure 8 to 11 by 2 to 4 u.

Sarcocystis Cervi

This species was described by Destombes (1957) from an unidentified species of deer in Vietnam. Honess (1956) found Sarcocystis in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) in Wyoming. However, it is likely that S. cervi is a synonym of S. tenella.

Sarcocystis Bertrami

Hosts: Horse, ass.

Location: Striated and heart muscles.

Geographic Distribution: Worldwide.

Prevalence: This species is extremely common thruout the world.

Morphology: This species closely resembles S. miescheriana of the pig. The cysts are up to 10 mm long and are compartmented. The cyst wall has a layer of cytophaneres.