Synonyms: Piroplasma trautmanni, Piroplasma suis.
Geographic Distribution: Southern Europe, Central and South Africa, USSR.
Morphology: This is a large form, the trophozoites being 2.5 to 4 u long and 1.5 to 2 u wide. They are oval, piriform, or less commonly round. They often occur in pairs. The host cells usually contain 1 to 4 or occasionally 5 to 6 parasites. From a very few to 65% of the erythrocytes may be invaded.
Life Cycle: The vector is Rhipicephalus sanguineus (syn., R. turanicus). Transmission occurs thru the egg. Other ticks have also been incriminated.
Pathogenesis: This species may cause either a mild disease or a fatal one with fever, listlessness, inappetence, anemia, hemoglobinuria, icterus, edema and incoordination. Infected sows may abort. The spleen is enlarged and engorged, the liver is enlarged, there are pulmonary, renal and gastrointestinal hyperemia and edema, petechiae are present on the serous membranes, and there are subepicardial and subendocardial hemorrhages.
Treatment: Trypan blue, acaprin and phenamidine are all effective. Acaprin is injected subcutaneously, 2 ml of a 5% solution being administered per 100 kg to large pigs and 1 ml of a 0.5% solution per 10 kg to small pigs. Lawrence and Shone (1955) injected phenamidine subcutaneously at the rate of 1.5 ml of a 40% aqueous solution per 100 pounds body weight.
Prevention and Control: Same as for other babesioses.